1. Health
You can opt-out at any time. Please refer to our privacy policy for contact information.

Discuss in my forum

What are the Possible Causes of Hallucinations in Alzheimer's Disease?

By

Updated June 19, 2014

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

Question: What are the Possible Causes of Hallucinations in Alzheimer's Disease?
Answer:

Delusions and hallucinations in Alzheimer's disease are quite common, affecting up to half of all Alzheimer's patients, usually in the middle stages of the disease. While they can occur in all five senses, seeing things (visual hallucinations) is the most common type.

While chances are reasonably good that if your loved one is seeing people in her home who are not there, it is a symptom of her dementia, it's important to realize that there are other possible causes as well. Hallucinations can occur for a variety of reasons in later life, with one large study in Sweden finding that almost 7% of all 85 year-old individuals without dementia were experiencing hallucinations.

Psychiatric Disorders

In addition to dementia, hallucinations may occur in delirium, schizophrenia, major depression, and alcohol or drug intoxication or withdrawal.

Medical Disorders

Any sudden injury to the brain, including a stroke or a seizure, can cause auditory or visual hallucinations. Certain types of medications, including benzodiazepines (like Valium and Xanax), Parkinson's drugs (like Sinemet), and drugs for urinary retention (like Ditropan), can cause hallucinations.

Sensory Loss

Problems with vision or hearing may increase the chances of developing hallucinations. Charles Bonnet Syndrome is a condition that causes mentally healthy people with visual loss to have complex visual hallucinations. Images of complex colored patterns and of people, animals, and plants are common. In older people who lose their hearing, they may experience musical hallucinations, hearing music in their ears even when no music is being played near them.

Environment

As with many symptoms of dementia,the environment plays a role in hallucinations as well. Poorly lit rooms and loud, chaotic settings may lead to misperceptions and worsening of hallucinations. Nursing homes may have a PA system over which announcements are made -- residents with dementia may perceive this as hearing voices coming from the ceiling.

Sources:

Blazer D., MD, Stefens D., MD, Busse E., MD, ed. Textbook of Geriatric Psychiatry, Third Edition, American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2004, p.269, 273

Menon G., Rahman I. et al. Complex Visual Hallucinations in the Visually Impaired: The Charles Bonnet Syndrome. Survey of Ophthalmology January 2003 48,1; 58-72.

Rabins P., Lyketsos C., Steele C., Practical Dementia Care, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 159-60.

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.

We comply with the HONcode standard
for trustworthy health
information: verify here.